Notes on The PHD Degree

pichhale haphte vibhaag sanvardhan kophee ghante mein, kaee chhaatron ne hamaare peeechadee ke baare mein charcha mein sankaay mein lage hue the. kaaryakram. yah spasht ho gaya ki kaee chhaatron ne mool baaten nahin samajheen; ve kuchh prashnon par aashcharyachakit the aur kuchh javaabon se ulajhan mein the

ye not peeechadee ke uddeshy ke baare mein buniyaadee jaanakaaree pradaan karate hain. chhaatron ko peeechadee ka peechha karane ka nirnay lene mein sahaayata karane ke prayaas mein ek kaaryakram digree.

mool baaten
e doktar oph philosophee digree, sankshipt peeech.dee., uchchatam shaikshanik digree hai jo kisee ko bhee kama sakatee hai. kyonki ek peeech.dee. kamaee vistaarit adhyayan aur teevr bauddhik prayaas kee aavashyakata hai, aabaadee ka ek pratishat se kam digree praapt ho jaatee hai sosaayatee ek aise vyakti ke lie sammaan dikhaatee hai jo peeech.dee. unhen sheershak doktar ke saath sambodhit karake

peeechadee kamaane ke lie, do ko poora karana hoga. sabase pahale, kisee ko ek vishisht vishay pooree tarah se svaamee hona chaahie. doosara, ek ko us vishay ke baare mein gyaan ke shareer ka vistaar karana chaahie.

maastareeng e vishay
kisee vishay ko maastar karane ke lie, ek chhaatr is vishay ke baare mein likhee gaee sabhee cheezon ko khojane aur padhane ke lie prakaashit saahity ko khojata hai. vaigyaanik vishayon mein, ek chhaatr paathy pustaken jaise saamaany sandarbh kaaryon ka adhyayan karake shuroo hota hai aakhirakaar, chhaatr ko vidvaanon ke patrikaon, un prakaashanon ka bhee pata lagaana chaahie jo vigyaanee soochanaon ka aadaan-pradaan karate hain aur unakee vaigyaanik jaanch kee rikord riport karate hain.
pratyek vishvavidyaalay saamaany dishaanirdeshon ko sthaapit karata hai jo ek chhaatr ko peeech.dee. digree, aur ek vishvavidyaalay ke bheetar pratyek kolej ya vibhaag vishisht maanakon ko set karata hai jisake dvaara vah kisee vishay ke svaamitv ko maapata hai. aamataur par, peeech.dee. kee taiyaaree mein kisee die gae kshetr mein kaam karate hain, ek chhaatr ko us kshetr mein ya nikat se sambandhit kshetr mein donon snaatak aur maastar digree (ya unake baraabar) kamaee karanee chaahie. is vishay kee poorn svaamitv ka pradarshan karane ke lie, ek chhaatr ko atirikt snaatak star ke paathyakramon ko poora karane, uchch gred ausat banae rakhane, ya vishesh pareekshaon kee baitaree lene kee aavashyakata ho sakatee hai. kaee sansthaanon mein, chhaatron ko teenon ko karana chaahie

kyonki peeechadee ke bhaag ke roop mein dee gaee pareekshaen paathyakram visheshagy gyaan ka aakalan karate hain, visheshagyon kee ek samiti dvaara unhen banaaya aur moolyaankan kiya jaata hai, jinamen se pratyek peeech.dee. digree.

vistaar gyaan
ek peeech.dee. ka saar, peeechadee ko alag karane vaala pahaloo any shaikshanik kaaryon se adhyayan, ek shabd mein sankshep kiya ja sakata hai: anusandhaan gyaan ka vistaar karane ke lie, kisee ko talaash karana, jaanchana aur vichaar karana chaahie. vaigyaanik samudaay vichaar ko pakadane ke lie shabd anusandhaan ka upayog karata hai.
vaigyaanik vishayon mein, anusandhaan mein aksar prayog ka arth hai, lekin shodh keval prayogon se jyaada nahin hai – isaka arth hai vyaakhya aur gaharee samajh. kampyootar vaigyaanikon ke lie, anusandhaan ka arth hai ki dijital kampyooteshan aur sanchaar ke antargat aane vaale siddhaanton ko ujaagar karane ke lie khoj karana. ek shodhakarta ko naee takaneekon ka pata lagaana chaahie jo kampyooteshanal tantr banaane ya unaka upayog karane mein sahaayata karate hain. shodhakarta nae avashoshan, nae drshtikon, nae elgoridam, nae siddhaanton, ya naee tantr kee talaash karate hain.

peeechadee poora karane ke lie, pratyek chhaatr ko ek shodh prabandh (adhik lokapriy roop se ek theesis ke roop mein sandarbhit) naamak ek lamba, aupachaarik dastaavez mein apane shodh se parinaam sankaay mein prastut karana chaahie. chhaatr ko apane shodh prabandh ko sankaay mein bhejana hoga aur maukhik pareeksha mein apane kaary ka bachaav karana chaahie.

utpaad se sambandh
kuchh maamalon mein, vaigyaanik anusandhaan ke nateeje nae utpaadon ko vikasit karane ya un maujoodataon ko sudhaarane ke lie upayog kiya ja sakata hai jo maujood hain. haalaanki, vaigyaanik kaamakaaj ke roop mein vyaavasaayik saphalata ya sambhaavit vyaavasaayik laabh ka upayog nahin karate hain; ve maanaveey samajh ko aage badhaane ke lie jaanch karate hain aur maanav ke gyaan ke shareer sankalit hain aksar, alpaavadhi ke mukaabale vaigyaanik shodh ke vaanijyik laabh deerghakaalik mein bahut adhik hote hain.
anusandhaan gatividhiyaan
kampyootar sains risarch mein nae kampyootar sistam ke dijain aur nirmaan ke roop mein vibhinn gatividhiyon ko shaamil kiya ja sakata hai, ganiteey prameyon ko saabit karana, kampyootar pranaalee likhana, kampyootar sistam ke pradarshan ko maapane, dijain ka aakalan karane ke lie vishleshanaatmak upakaranon ka upayog karana, ya trutiyon prograamar ka adhyayan karana bade softaveyar sistam kyonki ek shodhakarta anusandhaan jaanch mein uthane vaale pratyek prashn ka uttar dene ke lie upayukt gatividhiyon ko chunata hai, aur kyonki nae prashn ek jaanch kee prakriya ke roop mein utpann hote hain, isalie shodh gatividhiyon mein pariyojana se lekar pariyojana tak aur ek hee pariyojana mein samay-samay par bhinn hota hai. ek shodhakarta vibhinn tareekon aur upakaranon ka upayog karane ke lie taiyaar hona chaahie.
kuchh savaal poochhane ke lie
aap mein se bahut se yah nirnay lene kee koshish kar rahe hain ki peeech.dee. digree. yahaan kuchh savaal hain jo aap khud se poochh sakate hain
1. kya aap ek shodh kairiyar chaahate hain?
peeech.dee. mein daakhila lene se pahale kaaryakram, aapako saavadhaanee se apane deerghakaalik lakshyon par vichaar karana chaahie kyonki ek peeech.dee. kamaee anusandhaan ke lie prashikshan hai, aapako apane aap se yah poochhana chaahie ki kya shodh sthiti aapake deerghakaalik lakshy hai. yadi yah hai, to ek peeech.dee. digree aapake chune hue kairiyar ka maanak path hai (kuchh logon ne peeechadee ke bina ek shodh kee sthiti praapt karane mein kaamayaab rahe, lekin ve ven

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